Why AI in Prostate Cancer?

In recent times, magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has become a prevalent tool for the early detection of clinically significant Prostate Cancer (csPCa). While assessing the aggressiveness of prostate cancer predominantly relies on the traditional Gleason grading system introduced in 1974, FLUTE aims to simplify disease management, enhance prognosis precision, and enable better treatment decisions by utilizing cross-border Federated Learning (FL) to generate imaging data.

Our partner, Vall d'Hebron - Institut De Recerca, has devised an improved single-site AI methodology for diagnosing csPCa and has adapted a more rational and efficient serum PSA determination method. Leveraging AI and radiomics in prostate mpMRI has yielded richer datasets and novel biomarkers, potentially enhancing csPCa detection. However, the single-site approach may lead to AI model overfitting and is unsuitable for cross-border use.

In advancing csPCa prediction methods beyond single-site AI, the project proposes novel AI-based analysis of clinical data alongside imaging biomarkers within a robust, cross-border, multi-site Federated Learning environment. The enhanced accuracy in stratifying patients with less aggressive cancer will mitigate unnecessary treatment and repetitive biopsies, thus substantially improving patient well-being and significantly reducing related costs. This project's contribution to defining tumor hallmarks, harnessing AI for refining medical image information, and constructing predictive models signifies a notable advancement in optimizing prostate cancer diagnosis and prognostication. This endeavor ultimately seeks to personalize treatment based on the tumor's biological characteristics, further emphasizing the importance of early PCa detection for improved treatment outcomes. FLUTE's models will curtail the necessity for prostate biopsies, promoting greater individual compliance and encouraging proactive testing prior to symptom manifestation.

What is Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer originates in the prostate, a small gland in males responsible for producing seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Among the most prevalent cancer types, many instances of prostate cancer progress slowly and remain localized within the gland without posing significant risks. However, certain aggressive variants can rapidly spread.

Early detection of prostate cancer, while confined to the prostate, offers the best prospects for successful treatment. In its initial stages, prostate cancer might not present noticeable signs or symptoms. As the disease advances, individuals may experience:

  • Difficulty in urination
  • Weakened urine stream
  • Presence of blood in urine
  • Blood in semen
  • Bone discomfort
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Erectile dysfunction

Which are the risk factors of Prostate Cancer

Risk factors that can elevate your susceptibility to prostate cancer encompass:

Advanced Age

The likelihood of prostate cancer escalates with age, with the majority of cases arising after the age of 50.


While the exact causes are yet to be established, individuals of Black ethnicity exhibit a heightened vulnerability to prostate cancer compared to other racial groups. Moreover, within this population, the cancer tends to be more aggressive or advanced.

Family Background

A diagnosis of prostate cancer in a blood relative like a parent, sibling, or child might amplify your risk. Additionally, a familial history of genes associated with an augmented risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2), or a particularly robust family history of breast cancer, could heighten the likelihood of prostate cancer.


Obesity may raise the risk of prostate cancer, although research findings have yielded mixed outcomes. For those classified as obese, the cancer often exhibits greater aggression and a higher likelihood of recurrence following initial treatment.